Normally, urine contains many dissolved substances. Sometimes, material become concentrated in the urine and form hard crystals. These crystals can lead to the development of stones when materials continue to build up around them, much as a pearl is formed in an oyster.
Stones formed in the kidney are called kidney stones. Ureteral stone is a kidney stone that has left the kidney and moved down into the ureter. The majority of stones contain calcium, with most of it being comprised of a material called calcium oxalate. Other types of stones include substances such as calcium phosphate, uric acid, cystine and struvite.
One of the main reason of stone formation is loss of body fluids or being (dehydrated).
A family history of stones, especially in a first-degree relatives (parent or sibling), dramatically increases the probability of having stones.
A high-protein diet can cause the acid content in the body to increase. This decreases the amount of urinary citrate, a “good” chemical that helps prevent stones. Therefore, stones are likely to form.
A high-salt diet is another risk factor, as an increased amount of sodium passing into the urine can also pull calcium along with it which increases the probability for stones.
Intake of oxalate-rich foods such as leafy green vegetables, nuts, tea or chocolate may also worsen the situation.
Consumption of calcium pills by a person who is at risk to form stones, certain diuretics or calcium-based antacids may increase the risk of forming stones by increasing the amount of calcium in the urine.
Certain bowel disease such as chronic diarrhea, Crohn’s disease, and gastric bypass surgery.
Obstruction to urinary passage like in prostate enlargement or stricture disease Hyperarathyrodism (an endocrine disorder that results in more calcium in your urine)
Hypercalciuria (high level of calcium in urine), Hyperuricosuria (excess uric acid in urine)
Rare hereditary disorders such as cystinuria, primary hyperoxaluria.
What are the symptoms of a kidney stone?
Extreme pain in your back or side that will not go away
Blood in your urine
Fever and chills
Urine that smells bad or looks cloudy
A burning feeling when you urinate
How to diagnose?
X Ray, Ultrasoun and CT scan
The above mentioned tests give your doctor information about the size, location and number of stones to determine appropriate treatments.
How can kidney stones be prevented?
Kidney stones are a recurring disease, which means if you have one stone you are at risk for another stone event. In general, the lifetime recurrence risk for a stone former is thought to approach 50%. Stone prevention, therefore, is essential.
A good first step for prevention is to drink more liquids and water so as to produce at least two liters of urine in every 24-hour period.
People who form calcium stones used to be told to avoid dairy products and other foods with high calcium content. However, new studies have shown that restricting calcium may actually increase stone risk.
High doses of calcium, Vitamin D, or Vitamin C may increase the risk of developing stones, especially in people with a family history of stones. These people need to be careful and should calcium supplementation be needed, calcium citrate is best.
How are kidney stones treated?
Stone size, number of stones and location are the most important factors in deciding the treatment. Options for surgical treatment of stones include:
Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL)
At Metro Hospital, Faridabad department of UroSciences is fully equipped with all gadgets to provide full spectrum of treatment of kidney & prostate disorders. The team of kidney specialist is one of the finest in the region. Availability of gadgets like Holmium laser, state of art karl stazia laparoscopy system make treatment simplified & patient friendly.